Educational opportunities for disabled children
- Preschools or groups for children with special needs
- Schools for children with special needs
- Home educating
For a child, the degree of severity of disability shall be determined based on the need for personal assistance, guidance and supervision as follows:
- profound disability, if a person needs constant personal assistance, guidance or supervision twenty-four hours a day;
- severe disability, if a person needs personal assistance, guidance or supervision in every twenty-four hour period;
- moderate disability, if a person needs regular personal assistance or guidance outside their residence at least once a week.
Children have the right to receive special benefits, services and technical aids due to their disabilities. The state and local governments must provide to children with special needs educational opportunities that are equal to those provided to other children; educational opportunities for children with special needs in ordinary schools must also be considered.
Families can find assistance in providing education to disabled children from specialists and exchanging experiences with persons in the same situation. For persons with disabilities and special needs, including disabled children, many organisations, associations and unions have been established to help them to cope with their lives and to provide advice and assistance.
Preschools or groups for children with special needs
A rural municipality or city government shall provide all children whose residence is in their territory the opportunity to attend a preschool institution in the catchment area. On the proposal of the director of a preschool institution, a rural municipality or city government may form in that preschool institution integration groups that include children with special needs together with other children and groups for children with special needs that include only children with special needs. Preschools for children with special needs may also be established.
A child shall be admitted to a preschool for children with specials needs (a group for children with special needs) and a student to a sanatorium school or school for children with special needs (a class for children with special needs) on the basis of a decision of the counselling committee and a written application from a parent or guardian. A child’s birth certificate must also be submitted.
Schools for children with special needs
A rural municipality and city government shall provide to children with physical disabilities, speech disorders, sensory disabilities and mental disabilities educational opportunities in a school of their residence. In general, children with special needs are taught in an ordinary class, but, if necessary, in a special educational institution.
Educational opportunities for children with special needs are as follows:
- an ordinary school where, if necessary, individual curricula may be drawn up. If necessary, respective classes are meant for correction and rehabilitation;
- classes for children with special needs in an ordinary school;
- an ordinary school where subjects listed in a rehabilitation plan are taught by a special education teacher;
- a school for children with special needs where general subjects are taught and, simultaneously, a vocational school where vocational classes are taught.
State schools and municipal schools are established for children with specials needs. Sanatorium schools are meant for children with health disorders. Schools for children with special needs are meant for children with physical disabilities, speech disorders, sensory disabilities, mental disabilities and intellectual disabilities.
Students attending classes 1 to 9 have the right to be taught at home for health reasons, if a school of their residence is unable to create conditions that would meet the needs of students with disabilities or health disorders and enable their participation in studies.
- severe chronic somatic illnesses;
- severe functional impairments;
- severe disabilities.
Students are granted home educating by a family physician or medical specialist upon application by a parent (guardian). The decision whether to grant home educating to a student and implement an individual curriculum for them is made by a teacher’s council on the basis of an opinion of a family physician or medical specialist. Home educating is applied to a student only with the approval of a parent.
More about special educational needs can you read at home page of Ministry of Education and Research.
More about state assistance for disabled child can you read at home page of Ministry of Social Affairs.